Chinese Folding Screens
History of folding screens starts in China, where they appeared
in the VII century. These sophisticated pieces of furniture were made in wide range of sizes, from extremely large oversized folding screens that were used in spacious palaces, to miniature decorative screens that could comfortably
fit on a tabletop.
Folding screens used as room dividers was constructed from several panels attached to each other. The most popular in VII century China room dividers were six or eight panels folding screens. Chinese masters are
famous for their complex ancient lacquer application techniques.
Most known technique used in creation of folding screens - "naciju" - is a labor intensive multi layered lacquer application technique with gold leaf inserted into the lacquer on the different levels. Masters applied up to 30 layers of lacquer and each level had a unique gold leaf pattern. As a result - a magically glowing surface of the screen that exudes energy. Another popular unique decorative technique used by Chinese artisans in creation of folding screens is dimensional carving
on the clay surface.
Folding screens that are made by using this method are known as Coromandel screens. Each panel of coromandel screens was made from wood and covered with many layers of soft clay followed with multiple layers of lacquer. Then opulent designs with landscapes, flora and fauna motives, and calligraphy writing, were skillfully engraved in a different relief (high and low) into the screens panels, creating a breathtaking three dimensional effect. The Coromandel screens were then painted
and embellished with gold or silver leaf.
The unique screen making techniques passed from generation to generation and
are widely used and popular today.
Chinese folding screens often feature dragon motif. The dragon is probably one of the most familiar Chinese motifs. It is a first of all animals, and a symbol of masculinity, light, growth and life-giving water. As a king of the animals it is also represent nobility and royalty. According to Chinese mythology the dragon has nine features it takes from other animals: head of a horse, the antlers of a deer, the neck and tail of a snake, the belly of a shell, the scales of a carp, the claws of an eagle, the soles of a tiger and the ears of an ox. In decorative painting on the folding screens, one or several of those characteristics was emphasized, depend upon the fusion of the time. The dragon depicted as an element of
outer border design is symbol of prosperity, peace and happiness.
Chinese Folding Screens - part 2
Often a beautiful male and female peacocks were depicted on the panels of the folding screens. In ancient times the peacock was known to the Chinese only by reputation, but, as the empire extended southward into tropical climates, interest in this spectacularly colored bird exploded. the T'ang culture also saw the spread of folkloric beliefs involving the peacock, one that the bird would dance on seeing its reflection in a mirror. This likely accounts for the appearance of peacock as a decorative motif on the furnishing,
folding screens, and decorative mirrors.
Other traditions imported from continental Asia link the peacocks to Buddhism. According to legends that originated in India, this birds eat snakes, especially of the poisonous variety, can avert natural disasters, and is a symbol of immortality. Legendary combination of strength and beauty of the peacock led to its extreme popularity as a decorative subject. Painted on folding screens often portrayed peacocks in realistic manner. As an example, flawless and incredibly proportioned
compositions of the large folding screen with peacocks
assimilates as a whole and represent a cohesive masterpiece
Romantic compositions of the folding screens often featured landscapes and swimming swans. It is interesting to know that swans share with other large white birds in East Asia a reputation for being able to travel between haven and earth. Associating with heaven, swans are often used in hand-painted decorative motifs on the folding screens. Variety of large birds depicted on
hand-painted folding screen are an example of this
Often foreground of the folding screens contained one large central scene with a predominance of flowers and birds.
Folding screen with silver background featured on our website is showcasing
Flowers celebrated in poetry and art, being combined by artist in a gorgeous design that alludes to timeless classics. Chinese consider tree peony ("the king of flowers") and regard this opulent flower as a symbol of good fortune, high honor, and the spring season. Beautiful peony tree is a mane element of the composition of the
arched folding screen. Artist using peony flowers extensively in paintings on folding screens, portray the plant together with gallinaceous birds like long-tailed fowl. Moreover, they associate this flowers with romance and love, using it in particular to reverence romantic feelings of women. In China in the flower-and-bird
painting tradition, peony flowers trimmed with fowl
Japanese Folding Screens
In the VIII century folding
screens were introduced in Japan. Due to the customs and particularity of Japanese architecture, for a long time folding screens remained a most important decorative interior embellishment. Japanese with sophistication expressed a connection between home architecture and proportion and shape of a folding screens. The style and motifs of paintings featured on a decorative screens were adjusted according to traditions of the "rising sun country". Traditionally, in Japanese homes people sat on a floor in a domestic situations as well as during official ceremonies. Accordingly, painted design was concentrated on the bottom part of a screen, so, when person is seated, the most detailed part of a screens design was at eye level. While most of the pained interior decorative items in Japanese homes had a vertical orientation, decorative folding screens introduced a painted designs with an horizontal compositions that have been developing from right to left. Sometimes the painted designs of the screens were executed at the 30 to 54 degree angle. Japanese artisans "tilted" designs of a room dividers to achieve
a most dramatic effect.
Character and compositions of folding screens were largely influenced by Japanese Ho theater. Classic traditional theater's repertoire represented majesty, power, heroism and easily translated into every day living. Rich and influential Japanese aristocrats started incorporating in decoration of they homes painted folding screens, to accentuate they importance and visually resemble an appearance of a powerful and heroic figures on the stage of the Ho theater. Elaborately designed, painted in gold decorative screens provided a backdrop resembling a stage decorations, satisfying the ego of the noble. While Chinese screens have rich and complex ornamentation, the Japanese style of folding screens is known for it's attention to materials and meaningful symbolical compositions. (
Japanese folding screen with cranes )
One of the favorite motifs of the nobles is an old pine tree with bended trunk and branches. Old pine trees in Japanese culture represents wealth and power. Japanese have long believed that rocks, especially those with an unusual shape, embody sacred power and serve as a receptacles for the temporary residence of deities. Whereas we in the West tend to see rocks as lifeless and inert, the oriental culture consider rocks to be among those vessels in which life forces brew and gain power. In this context, rocks often appear on folding screens. In Oriental culture the fact that pine tree is evergreen led to the tree becoming a symbol of longevity, good fortune, and steadfastness. Because of this auspicious associations oriental art - Chinese and Japanese in particular - treat the pine tree as a primary symbol of long life and even immortality, and widely incorporated it into decorative design of furnishing, including decorative folding screens. The middleclass enjoyed decorative screens painted with flowers and birds motifs, the writers preferred folding screens with inspirational landscape paintings. Japanese women had to have a decorative screen in there homes. Due to the complicated system of social roles and taboos a folding screens have strong emotional meanings, associated with secrets, love, flirtation, and female life overall. In many Japanese books folding
screens are the only witness of secret meetings and love affairs.
Folding Screens in Europe
Some believe that folding screens were introduced to Europe by Marco Polo, who brought them to Italy from his expedition to China. Decorative screens instantly caught attention because of there size, beauty and immediately discovered multifunctional qualities. Moreover the uncomplicated construction of the folding screens could be easily reproduced by native masters. Portable decorative screens made their way into the huge dreary rooms of Gothic castles. These first European folding screens were build from chunky oak planks, they were extremely heavy and look more like a fence than an interior piece of furniture. Even though, the decorative appearance of this folding screens was incomparable to original beauty of Chinese folding screens, they made a huge
rooms appear much cozier.
In the 17th century folding screens appeared in Europe in all there glory. With elaborate prosperity of a rococo style the popularity of everything exotic and oriental had grown and Chinese decorative screens were reintroduced to Europe. Europeans immediately discovered and valued the dual functionality of folding screens. The ability of the folding screens to partly close a space, dividing it on a separate areas, while providing an artistic and sophisticated look opened a whole new opportunities for space planning. Decorative screens become objects for admiration and even highly valuable collectables. Decorative folding screens were extremely expensive, therefore only wealthiest residence could afford to own them. The most valuable were the Coromandel screens. Black with golden accents or colorfully painted Coromandel screens established themselves in a great palaces. With decorative screen as a backdrop any event that would take place, whether it was a card game, party, or a romantic date would have an
aura of mystery.
From Holland to England, from France to Russia folding decorative screens become a must have object in majestic interiors of royalty and nobility. Russian queen Ekaterina II had such a fascination for everything oriental, that she ordered a Chinese palace to be built for herself. The Queen's imagination required painted ceilings, porcelain, wall panels, and luxurious fabrics in a royal Chinoserie style. But after careful calculations by architect Antonio Rinaldy the expense of all desired by Ekaterina II imported Chinese goods was extremely expensive even for a queen. Her Chinese palace was build and exist now in all its glory, interiors of the palace were finished by the best European artisans in Chinoserie designs, but one thing Ekaterina had to have. Guess what was it? Yes, it was an exceptional eight panel lacquered folding screen from China. No one, even the best European artisans, could reproduced famous Chinese screens. Because of special secret formulation of the lacquer and unique application techniques known and cherished by Chinese master artisans. Stunningly beautiful Ekaterina's folding screen featured Chinese princess in the bridal gown with her servants. The Queen ordered this masterpiece placed into her bedroom, so she
could please her eyes while resting to sleep.
The popularity of the decorative room dividers was revived in XIX-XX centuries.
On the edge of the centuries two main directions of interior design appeared; the Arts and Crafts movement's interest in line and quality craftsmanship was developed in England and America, then elsewhere in Europe there was a move towards the decorative swirls, of Art Nouveau. The successors of this two where encompassed in the eclectic Art Deco era that brought back an admiration of oriental arts. Folding screens came back in style once again. On our site we have several decorative screens that are made using traditional Coromandel techniques and executed in Art-Deco style. Traditional oriental landscapes, mysterious hieroglyphs,
and traditional Ming Dynasty court scenes hand painted on the folding screens where inspirational
for Degas, Van Gogh and other talents of the time.
Folding Screens in Today's Interiors
Open plans of today's interiors with the zoning principles explains a new revival of folding screens and there extreme popularity. When living space had to be divided into the functional zones. Nothing could accomplish this task better than use of folding screens with there incredible versatility, mobility, adjustability, and esthetic value. It's made a perfect sense to use folding screens instead of the complicated in construction sliding or folding doors (by the way, they barely hold any
Folding screens do not require any installation, you can fold it, move it, or place in another room any time you want, moreover, the look of this decorative folding screens are absolutely beautiful and can satisfy any style preferences and decorating taste. The space divided by decorative screen can be used for different purposes. This unique exotic piece of furniture
like folding screen with raised borders will look great in any room in your home. Folding screens are often placed in the master bedroom, dining or living
When placed against the wall, folding screen like that creates a dramatic decorative backdrop for an overall design and represent high esthetical value. If folding screen is strategically placed to divide the room you can see it's hand painted design from both sides. Usually, decorative screens room-dividers have a different design on the front
and on the back.
The space created by separation has a very private and cozy atmosphere. That is why behind the folding panels of the decorative screens is a quiet place for reading, sleeping or private conversation. Of course, places like that are perfect for relaxation and a quite conversation with
A decorative screens will add an architectural quality to a room. By using folding screens as a room dividers you can set off an entrance where the front door opens directly into the living area. Folding screens can act as a divider between living and dining areas, they can close off a kitchen, or set off a private area by making a room within a room. Folding screens can redirect traffic when strategically placed, extend the apparent size of a room by replacing a door. With portable folding screens you can control the flow of air and the direction of light, camouflage an old-fashioned radiator or air conditioning unit, or conceal storage. Decorative
screens like Chinoserie folding screen or
antiqued red oriental screen can act as a great backdrop for a furniture grouping, substitute for side drapery, or serve as a room
If you thinking, that folding screens are old fashion, think twice. Of course, decorative screens are not a furniture piece of first priority. But eastern ability to transform everyday things into a masterpieces, always created a special mysterious aura and attraction to every day exotic. Beside that folding screens can separating a room and hand-painted decorative screens can act as a beautiful
mobile art piece.